Architecture 

The traditional architecture of Bhutan features the incorporation of Chinese ingenuity Tibetan influence and conformity to local climatic conditions. Functionality and aesthetics compliment each other as most of the structures are built with a pre defined purpose in mind. Solid Wooden beams using the technique of locks are used as pillars, wooden planks for flooring, etc… walls are made of sun dried compacted mud blocks held together by a paste of crushed limestone used as a binding element. Doors and windows made of wood is assembled separately and fixed into the slots provided for them. Roofs are made of slates and shingles supported by a frame work of wooden beams. Masoned stones are used for lining drains, foundations and for paving courtyards. The finest examples of medieval Bhutanese architecture are the Dzongs (huge fortresses) built during the time of ‘Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyal’ in the 16th century A.D. and the temples and monasteries built in the 12th and 13th century A.D have withstood the ravages of time and nature and are today standing proof of the high levels of skill and robust techniques mastered by the Bhutanese builders of yore. A striking feature of traditional Bhutanese architecture is the peculiar balance it somehow manages to maintain by merging effortlessly into the landscape.

A typical Bhutanese homestead or farm house is usually a double storied building in which the ground floor is undivided and used to provide shelter to livestock at night. The upper floor is occupied by the landlord and his family members. A whole trunk of a large tree shorn of its branches and bark is carved to make a ladder conveniently placed near the entrance. Accessibility is rarely through the front facade – points of entry are mostly located at the sides or back portions. The main entrance leads in to a large multipurpose hall with a hearth in the middle of the side walls. This hall serves as the kitchen, living room, dinning room and bed room. Adjacent to it an entire room is allotted to the chapel (Choeshom). Another room is spared to keep beddings, clothes tools, etc… The left over space is used to store food grains, vegetables, etc… The attic may be reserved as private quarters for the elderly folks, for meditation and to put away stuff not required for daily use.